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We tend to think of asleep or awake as an orthodox: if you are not asleep, you must be awake. But specialist for sleep disorder and Neurologist Guy Leshyner says that this is not so simple.
"If you look at the brain during sleep, we now know that actually Sleep is not a static state, "Leshiner says. There are several different brain states that fall while we sleep."
As a chef from the Center for Sleep Disorders at London's London Hospital, Lezzyner treated patients with a lot of nocturnal problems, including insomnia, night-time scars, narcolepsy, sleep, sleep and sexo, a condition in which a person pursues sexual acts. While asleep. He writes about his experiences in his book The nocturnal brain.
Leschiner notes that different parts of the brain are not always at the same stage of sleep. When this happens, a person can order a pizza or go for a ride – while technically still sleeping quickly.
"These conditions are very strange," says Lezziner. "But at other occasions, they can be changing lives, resulting in major injuries or, as one of the cases I described in this book, in a criminal conviction."
About What We Know About Recall After A Sleepwalking Episode
We used to think that people don't really remember something that happens at this stage. What seems to be related to the fact that the brain in parts is awake in very deep sleep while in other parts. What we have learned in the last few years is that, in fact, a lot of people have some sort of limited recall. They do not necessarily remember the details of all the events or the completeness of the event, but they often experience little snippets. … at one opportunity, [a patient] In the middle of the night, his girlfriend pulled out of bed because he thought a tsunami was about to wash them off and the kinds of events with strong emotional context were often better mentioned.
On how sleepwalking the brain demonstrates can be in multiple sleep stages at once
Certain parts of the brain can remain in very deep sleep … [such as] Frontal lobes, which are the seats of our rational thinking or planning or of normal behavior, while other parts of the brain can exhibit electrical activity, which is very similar to being awake. The major parts of the brain [can seem to remain awake] Are [the ones] Responsible for emotion, an area of the brain called the limbic system, of course the brain Who are responsible For movement. This is the disassociation between the different parts of the brain in terms of sleep stages, which actually leads to the types of behavior.
On what causes sleepwalking
We know that sleepwalking And the related conditions seem to run very strongly in families. There seems to be some kind of genetic predisposition to being able to enter the disconnected brain state, and we know something that disrupts your sleep if you have that genetic predisposition can challenge these behaviors. So, for example, I've seen people who have been non-RM parasomnia events [such as sleepwalking] The fact that they sleep in a creepy bed and their bed partner rolled over [or] Sometimes a big truck [drove] Past in the street outside the bedroom.
But there are also internal manifestations, internal processes that can provoke the partial awakening. So, for example, snoring or, more severely than snoring, sleep apnea, where people keep breathing in their sleep … something that causes a change in the depth of sleep in people who are predisposed to this phenomenon of being in multiple sleep stages. At the same time, behaviors can be challenged.
On sleep apnea
Sleep Apnea describes the phenomenon of our airway collapsed into sleep. … Our Airway is essentially a floppy tube that has some rigidity, some structure to it as a result of multiple muscles. And when we drift off to sleep, these muscles lose some of their tension and the airway is a little more floppy. Now when there is a little floppy and reverberation when we breathe during sleep, this will cause snoring – the reverberation of the airway walls causes noise.
But in some people, the Airway can be floppy enough or narrow enough for it to collapse and block the air flow when we sleep. It is normal that everybody is accustomed to once, but if this is often the case, it is sometimes 10, or 20, sometimes 100 times an hour of sleep because we drift off to sleep, the airway collapses, our oxygen levels If we fall, our heart rate increases, our brain wakes up again and our sleep is essentially disrupted. …
We now know that sleepy sleep apnea has a range of long-term implications for our health in terms of high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease risk, stroke risk, impact on cognition and mental clarity. It is now an emerging body of evidence suggesting that actually sleepy sleep apnea may be a factor in the development of conditions like dementia.
The importance of positive associations with your bed
If you are a good sleeper, you tend to associate yourself with bed You are in the place of comfort, the place where you go and you … Feel cozy and drift away from sleep and wake up in the morning and feel awake and refreshed. But for people with insomnia, they often associate bed with difficulty getting up to sleep, with the alarm off the night, with the fact that when they wake up in the morning they will feel awfully unruly and unstressed. And the environment that we normally associate with sleep for them becomes an instrument of torture. So many of the progress in this area of treating insomnia are really aimed at breaking the negative associations that people have with their sleeping environment if they have insomnia and rebuilding positive associations. So try to use the brain mechanism for drifting away from sleep and trying to reduce anxiety surrounding sleep in order to restore a normal sleep pattern.
On the problem with taking benzodiazepines And Ambient For insomnia
There were a few sea changes in the last few years away from these drugs. We know these drugs [are] Sedative. The first thing to know is that they don't mimic normal sleep. They are associated with several major problems. Some of these drugs are, for example, associated with an increased risk of road traffic accidents in the morning because of a hangover effect. They are associated with an increased risk of falls in the elderly, for example. And we know that people can develop dependence on these drugs and can also be habitatized by what they mean, they need ever increasing doses to get the same effect.
In the long term, there are some signals coming out of the work done around the world suggesting that some of these drugs are actually associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. And that the story is not fully understood – and it may be that people who have insomnia in their own right are prepared for dementia or actually that insomnia might be a really early warning sign of dementia – [it] Certainly, there is cause for concern that perhaps we should not use these drugs as liberally as we have done in the past. Therefore, the approach to behavioral approaches, approaches like cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, is indeed driven by some of the concerns.
On his recommendation that you read before bed
If you do not read on a tablet or laptop, [and instead an] An old analogue book I would highly recommend. There is a good way to reduce your exposure. Keep your mind slightly active so you're not concentrating on the prospect of having to drift off to sleep until you're really tired. It is a very good way to keep your mind occupied.
Sam Bray and Mooj Zadie produced and edited the interview. Bridget is bidding and Molly Sea-Nesper is using it for the web.