World Diabetes Day began in 1991 in the face of a rapidly growing number of diabetics around the world. On November 14, the date is reminiscent of Frederick G. Banting's birthday, which, together with Charles Herbert Best, discovered a vital hormone insulin in 1921, as the Uri cantonal hospital said in a statement.
On this day, the world should be alerted to diabetes, its causes and impact on the lives of the affected. "Above all, it should become clear that diabetes is not a problem of some people, but that more and more people in the world must live with this disease," writes the Swiss Diabetes Society (SDG).
Is early detection of diabetes possible?
Esther Hunkeler: For diabetes type 2, formerly called adult diabetes, it is certain. If someone belongs to a risk group, it makes sense that the blood glucose level should be checked regularly by a family doctor. It is thus possible to detect high levels of blood sugar early and initiate initial measures, for example in the context of a lifestyle change through nutritional counseling. For type 1 diabetes, there is no early detection, which occurs primarily in childhood and adolescence, and can generally develop at any age. The reason is that the pancreas suddenly stops producing insulin, which is unpredictable.
risk group? So how does anyone notice if diabetes has a risk?
Esther Hunkeler: The person has an increased risk of developing diabetes, for example, having overweight, high blood pressure and high levels of cholesterol. These factors are collected when close relatives who have a diabetes mellitus – for example, father, mother, or sister – have close relatives. However, people who have normal weight, but are family-friendly, can also develop diabetes. In addition, studies have shown that regular physical activity can be an effective way to prevent diabetes.
The frost is also a sweet season. What does this mean for diabetics?
Esther Hunkeler: Eating and drinking directly affect the blood sugar level. In counseling on diabetes, I often get questions about nutrition that are discussed in nutritional counseling. When diagnosing diabetes, I clarify the patient's clinical picture. They also learn how to properly measure blood sugar. In addition, patients should be taught to understand their individual diabetes therapy, whether it is a mode of action or an insulin regimen. If someone injects insulin, I will also train him. The goal of counseling with diabetes is that the patient can manage diabetes with the help of a doctor.
Patrik Jauch: Sweet things do not have to be completely eradicated from the diet, including diabetes. Usually, it makes sense to arrange sweets and sweets immediately after the main meal instead of the intermediate.
Is the consumption of too many cakes the cause of diabetes?
Patrik Jauch: People often say it, but they're not right. The main factor is overweight or, in particular, excessive fat in the abdomen. This has the biggest impact. And then you have to say that the effect is not only white sugar, but the total amount of carbohydrates that also affects fructose, starch additives, malt sugar or milk sugar. Excessive intake can in addition to affecting body weight and abdominal fat also independently affect when "type 2 diabetes" breaks out. Meal supply – including sweets – as well as in a balanced diet.
Generally for food. How does the risk of the disease really depend on diet?
Patrik Jauch: A well-balanced diet is essential to maintaining good health. It's not just about eating vegetables, but for a general balance. Today, it is known that in the long run we can avoid various diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and many others – but not 100%. Eating or malnutrition is also a risk factor, such as hereditary heritage, environment, smoking, and so on.
Is diabetes a disease of well-being?
Esther Hunkeler: Yes, part of this is certainly a consequence of the well-being of our society. A large part of the population is working in the headquarters. In addition, food is always and everywhere available, especially very high energy, high-calorie foods. These two factors promote overweight, which is a risk factor for the onset of diabetes.
In the morning after the resurrection, a cup of coffee, an espresso. What do you say as a dietitian?
Patrik Jauch: Breakfast is important. People who eat breakfast have a lower risk of developing diabetes, obesity or their consequences, including according to recent studies. So I would not have canceled coffee. Especially with coffee, it is assumed that it also has positive effects on the cardiovascular system. However, in the food advice, I would consider what I would most likely have thought to eat for breakfast. Most often, I would set a concrete goal for the next meeting.
Keep healthy, avoid diabetes. Can you say that?
Patrick Jauch: Avoiding may be the wrong word, but it is delaying. So if you eat healthy, the so-called type 2 diabetes, called age-old sugar, is only 90, instead of 60, if you bring a strong family disposition. However, type 1 diabetes has nothing to do with lifestyle. This can also affect young and old, even if the lifestyle is healthy.
Should diabetics do more sport?
Esther Hunkeler: Yes, absolutely. Regular physical activity is an important part of the concept of treatment, since exercise can lower blood sugar without insulin. The movement within 150 minutes per week has a positive effect on the metabolism of sugar. It does not matter if there are 60 minutes of swimming twice a week plus 30 minutes of cycling at home coach or 30 minutes of fasting after dinner four times a week. And of course, it does not matter if someone moves more than 150 minutes a week.
Are there specific diet recommendations for diabetes?
Patrik Jauch: The basis today is the recommendations of a normal balanced diet. The right diet is the one that suits the therapy concerned. Regardless of whether they should only pay attention to lifestyle, take pills, or inject insulin, it is significantly different from the recommendations. It's important to know about the options and then decide how much you can or do to do. Those who want to make the most of life-style changes make the most of the most important foundations of everyday life, which is also good. Therefore, instead of very general information, we recommend an individual consultation.
Can a person come to your hospital if he has a question about nutrition and health?
Patrik Jauch: Yes, in case of illness, such as diabetes, everyone has the right to six to twelve nutrition consultations and nine diabetes consultations per calendar year. This is taken over by the basic health insurance if you have a medical prescription. Therefore, it makes sense to discuss a possible grant with a family doctor. (Pd / ml)