Learn more about electricity – why do not the batteries fully charge and empty? / Article / LSM.LV



The Council is working to improve the capacity of the battery to store energy. Kristaps Vitols, a researcher in Latvia, also deals with her. In LTV, Cognitive Impulse, says that the battery life must not be fully charged and completely emptied.

How was the victory of civilization in exchange for electricity?

  • 6th century BC N. No. In ancient Greece. Jat detected static electricity by rubbing amber against wool.
  • In 1771, the Italian doctor, Luigi Galvani, noticed that the stick in the leg was sunk when it spun over it.
  • In 1800, the Italian physicist, Alessandro Volta, created the first electric battery.
  • In 1820, André Marie Amper understood how it affects the current magnetic field.
  • In 1831, Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction and laid the foundations for the production of an electric motor.
  • In 1879, American inventor Thomas Edison patented the first filament lamp.

It is said that at the time when Faraday showed a breakthrough to his country's prime minister, the politician asked if he had any benefit. Faradey then determined – I do not know, but I'm sure it will be possible to collect taxes.

In the meantime, in other sciences, the legendary personality of Nicholas Tesla went in a different way – he had the idea that electricity would be free for everyone. The basic idea of ​​Tesla discs is that the object in the city center generates electricity, but the bulbs or any other non-wire electrical equipment get the necessary energy from it. The problem was that the number of users was very small. So, the idea of ​​the Tesla chain at least now seems like a costly and inefficient way to provide electricity to consumers. Who knows, maybe the idea of ​​electricity that is available as wireless internet is not a good time.

James M. Maxwell is much better with which his ideas go to work. His idea of ​​how a moving magnet creates electricity has made a major breakthrough in the development of civilization. Magnet moves an electron like water. By the way, for such a comparison, the same electricity is often used, and where there is water, there are also current or current and all related measurement units.

Basic principles of electrical physics

What is then the flow of electricity? These are electrons – small particles in small atoms. Here some basic principles of physics need to be taken into account in order to understand why electrons are formed as electrical energy.

Physicists are illustrative of electrons, such as beads, which, as in any case, have a very violent refusal force, although they are negligible but still attractive forces, but unlike others. Because atoms without electrons also have other particles – protons, they communicate with one another. Usually, how many electrons in the atom are not protons, and we do not feel any special electrical discharges. For example, for example, by rubbing one surface against another, the electrons from one surface to another are obtained, the number of particles changes, they begin to attract particles of other objects. And all this can be measured as electricity.

Electric charges can be transferred from one surface to another. For example, this happens every time hair is released, synthetic clothing, even if it pulls its feet to the ground and touches metal objects.

On the other hand, the electromagnetic field determines whether the electrons will move as bridging rivers and form a direct current, or they will fly there 50 times per second and generate alternating current.

Researching energy storage

All types of energy currently available, except solar energy, generate alternating current. However, only current flow can occur. Direct current is a form in which energy is also stored in batteries, and the types of batteries are as diverse as their tasks: operation of devices, accumulation of energy produced.

The way how and for how long the batteries are able to store energy is directly dependent on the chemical elements in them. On the other hand, the charger of the battery affects the behavior of these elements. "At the moment when we accumulate energy, some ions are moving from one side to the other, and the electric energy does not flow inside. When the battery is being charged, the ions are aligned on the other side and they are waiting for. We connect the external load, the current flows in the opposite direction and the ions they are moving back. That's why they are equilibrium on the other, "says Kristaps Vitols, researcher at the Institute of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering in Riga (RTU).

When the batteries become empty or do not perform their tasks, they do not make the required reactions, so the particles do not stand in the right places. "It's not right to return the battery all the way through. Since the ions went to another site, they settled in their place and they are longer there, the more they like to stay there, then they start lowering the batteries in capacity. and can not work for so long, "says Vitol.

This means that the battery must not be fully charged and completely discharged. "In one case, the ions remain on one side and the other on the other side.

Both extreme points degrade the battery, "explains the researcher.

Not so long ago, it seemed that batteries should not be partially recharged because they then remembered their condition and did not even try to be full. It turns out that this is neither a myth nor a truth, because everything in it is made of which the batteries are made. "Built-in devices such as lithium-ion batteries have no memory. In the past there were nickel-cadmium batteries that were memorized – if they were half filled, then only half of the work," says Vitol.

In order to further improve the capacity of energy storage batteries, the world does not make millions in this industry. In Latvia, Kristaps Vitols is one of those scientists looking for the best battery solutions, taking care of them, just like a living organism. "There are no electronics, only chemistry and materials science combined to keep the batteries longer, better and cheaper. When they need to be transplanted, cells must be combined with schemes that take care of the well-being of each cell," explains the researcher.

The battery life depends on the temperature, but it must be able to move in order to have the electrons that accumulate them.


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