For birds of paradise, which is hot is not enough to win Mate, they must also move




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For birds of paradise, physical and vocal qualities and behaviors develop together, which is contrary to what we think we are aware of most of the songs

Adult male Wilson bird paradise, Diphyllodes respublica. It is one of 39 (or such) species of birds that pass into the taxa family Paradisaeidae. This type of female court on the forest floor.
(Credit: Tim Laman, with permission.)Tim Laman

"After centuries of abuse about how to think about the process of evolution, it is still difficult for people to see clearly when looking at them," said evolutionary ornithologist Richard Prum, a professor of ornithology and head of the Zoology vertebrate curator on Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University, when I asked him to comment on this new study.

"There are no rules for beauty."

Adult male blue bird paradise, Paradisaea rudolphi, is a medium-sized member of the taxisonomic family Paradisaeidae. This species belongs to females in the forest. Some ornithologists believe that the Blue Avalanche Paradise is the most beautiful among all living birds.
(Credit: Tim Laman, with permission.)Tim Laman

At first sight, the birds apparently oppose the usual wisdom about the development of sexual signals in songs. Serious carriers and evolutionary students often point out that the complexity of color and ornaments of the feathers is inversely related to the complexity of songs in songs: more colorful birds have less prepared songs, while less colorful birds have more elaborate songs. This idea is definitely nothing new; even Charles Darwin (ref & amp; ref) and Alfred Russel Wallace discussed this pattern.

These familiar motives are in fact the basis for the "transmission hypothesis" (ref). The theoretical justification on which this hypothesis is based is that if two different sexual signals are expensive to develop or express men, then the reverse, inter-specific evolutionary compromise (ie. ref & amp; ref). A few weeks ago, scientists justified University of Oxford reported strong support for this hypothesis in birds and found that the evidence for this pattern remains strong even if other key factors, including habitat types, ecological divergence and inter -sectic interactions are taken into account (ref).

According to these studies, how to develop a bird race (often called BoP) All things – Stunning colors of feathers, made decorations, tricky calls and seemingly impossible, shapes that move yards?

A newly published study by evolutionary biologist Russell Ligon, postdoctoral research scientist at the University of Cornell UniversityIt is Laboratory for ornithology ("Lab O") and his colleagues suggest that the choice of mathematics in birds' races is not primarily focused on one property, but women assess the overall attractiveness of a man – his feathers, color and ornament, as well as his singing and dance skills. In addition, Ligon and his associates also found evidence that perhaps the chosen ones might even have expressed another feature: whether men show females in the crochet, in the forest, or in the forest.

Left: adult male king Saxon bird of paradise, Pteridophora alberti. The displays of the wine cellar of this type are evident from the forest image. Right: adult male is a small bird of paradise, Paradisaea is a minor, the performances are visible in the forest.
(Credit: Tim Laman, with permission.)Tim Laman

According to this study all these properties developed in tandem under the influence of genetics and the environment and are the result of millions of years of precise choice of mate. Dr. In these articles, Ligon and his associates refer to these characteristics as the "phenotype of enjoyment".

What features are included in the "transplant phenotype" for birds of paradise?

Dr. Ligon and his colleagues analyzed 961 videos and 176 audio recordings that they maintained in Cornell's Macauley Library archives, in addition to examining the 393 museum specimens he has American Museum of Natural History. Based on their studies, it was found that a certain collection of properties and behavior appears to include a "transplant phenotype" for birds of paradise (Figure 2):

  • Because the number of colors on a male increase, as well as the number of different sounds that he makes
  • The most flourished dancers have a great repertoire of sounds
  • Men who show women in the group (known as a medicine) have more colors, so they are more visible during the competition

Figure 2. Signal diversity indices differ greatly in birds' arenas. In order to facilitate the interpretation of the variation of the signal diversity in the family (Paradisaeidae), we created tailored diversity for each type of signal (color, behavior, sound), so that we created (left) a composite measure of the overall diversity of the signal (thermal mapped to phylogeny) and (right) stacked bars showing the change of relative diversity for each type of signal for each type. (doi:10.1371 / revija.pbio.2006962)doi: 10.1371 / journal.pbio.2006962

"I think Figure 2 captures some of the most interesting differences in the variety of signals between species," said Dr. Ligon in e-mail. "For example, you see that it is Parotias (mostly black, actually ultra black[more[more[več[morehere]birds that appear on the forest) have low color diversity (a small red line) and very high behavioral diversity (purple bar). "

But that's all about cumulative power female choice

"But the KEY number, according to science, is figure 3," continued Dr. Ligon. "Those positive slopes that show that species with high color diversity also have high acoustic diversity (Figure 3a) and that species with high behavioral diversity have high acoustic diversity (Figure 3b), * a thing * that truly makes BoPs special and suggests that women choose partners on the basis of combination of decorations. The idea that birds of paradise partners are based on integrated multicomponent decorations ornaments is similar to the way in which people evaluate artwork (ie, we evaluate the essence of work, which is more as a simple sum of its parts), "explained Dr. Ligon in e-mail.

Figure 3. Positive phylogenetic correlations exist between several indicators of diversity in the evolutionary scale. (A) Color and acoustic diversity are positively related to paradise birds, where species with greater color diversity show greater acoustic diversity in control over behavioral diversity, display height and proximity in mPGLS regression. (B) Behavior and acoustic diversity are positively related to paradise birds, among which species with greater behavioral diversity show greater acoustic diversity in controlling color diversity, display height and proximity in mPGLS regression. Point types represent peak values ​​for altered behavioral and color diversity of logs. Exp lek = exploded drug; mPGLS = multiple phylogenetic generalized smallest squares; my = a million years. (doi:10.1371 / revija.pbio.2006962)doi: 10.1371 / journal.pbio.2006962

The court's location is also very important

Despite being brilliantly colorful, exquisitely decorated and surprisingly musical, Dr. Ligon and his colleagues found that the location of the stage where events take place is also important for birds of paradise.

"The species that appear on the ground have more dance moves than those that appear in the canopy or forest extension," said co-author, evolutionary biologist Edwin Scholes, co-founder and head of laboratory O The project of a bird race, in a press release. For example, in the woods of the canopy, a man sings more complicated poems, as he would be more likely to hear them closer to women. At the same time, these male horses had less complicated dance moves. In contrast, the species that appeared on the forest.

"On dark forest soil, men may need their own game to get women's attention," stressed Dr. Scholes.

Illustrations of tomato birds Szabolcs K & oacute; kay; illustration of the background and graphic design of Jillian Ditner.
(Graphic love of Cornell's Ornithology Laboratory.)Cornell Laboratory for ornithology

Is it a combination of ecology and the choice of mother, what makes special birds of paradise?

"Paradise birds are" special "because the positive correlation between the ornaments between species is a truly rare phenomenon in nature," explained Dr. Ligon in e-mail. These findings show that men may be able to develop new features while still maintaining their overall attractiveness because women choose partners on the basis of a combination of properties.

"Long-standing hypotheses about why BoP focuses on the unique natural and evolutionary history of this group," explained Dr. Ligon. "They live in New Guinea and in tropical northern Australia, in regions where fruits do not have mammals, and reduce the pressure from the fruit. This shows that they can more easily fulfill their energy requirements and have to" worry "against predators less likely to free themselves to focus on the attractiveness / choice of partners. "

"In addition, the topography of New Guinea (which has spurred the isolation and diversity of human languages[more[more[več[morehere]), he allegedly contributed to the independent orientations of the evolution of ornaments [in birds-of-paradise], "Added Dr. Ligon.

Adult male magnificent riflebird (Ptiloris magnificus). This species of medium-sized bird species grows on women in the forest.
(Credit: Tim Laman, with permission.)Tim Laman

But are you evolutionary "compromises" or something else?

"I never believed there were any compromises anywhere!" Exclaimed Professor Prum by e-mail after reading the paper.

"The contribution is very interesting, but the authors are still looking for some kind of powerful explanation when there is no need," explained Professor Prum. "I do not think BoP is special in any way except in the power of sexual choice that takes a long time."

One could almost think of male paradise birds as lively masterpieces created by prudent women.

Source:

Russell A. Ligon, Christopher D. Diaz, Janelle L. Morano, Jolyon Troscianko, Martin Stevens, Annalyse Moskeland, Timothy G. Laman and Edwin Scholes, III (2018). Development of correlated complexity in radically different encouraging signs of birds of paradise, PLoS biology, 16(11): e2006962 doi:10.1371 / revija.pbio.2006962

Also quote:

Charles Darwin (1871). Downhill and gender selection. (London, UK: John Murray: Amazon USA / Amazon UK)

For birds of paradise, being hot is not enough to win Matej, they must also have & nbsp; moves | @GrrlScientist

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For birds of paradise, physical and vocal qualities and behaviors develop together, which is contrary to what we think we are aware of most of the songs

Adult male Wilson bird paradise, Diphyllodes respublica. It is one of 39 (or such) species of birds that pass into the taxa family Paradisaeidae. This type of female court on the forest floor.
(Credit: Tim Laman, with permission.)Tim Laman

"After centuries of abuse about how to think about the process of evolution, it is still difficult for people to see clearly when looking at them," said evolutionary ornithologist Richard Prum, a professor of ornithology and head of the Zoology Vertebrate Curator at the Peabody Prirodoslovni muzej at Yale University when I asked him to comment on this new study.

"There are no rules for beauty."

Adult male blue bird paradise, Paradisaea rudolphi, is a medium-sized member of the taxisonomic family Paradisaeidae. This species belongs to females in the forest. Some ornithologists believe that the Blue Avalanche Paradise is the most beautiful among all living birds.
(Credit: Tim Laman, with permission.)Tim Laman

At first sight, the birds apparently oppose the usual wisdom about the development of sexual signals in songs. Serious carriers and evolutionary students often point out that the complexity of color and ornaments of the feathers is inversely related to the complexity of songs in songs: more colorful birds have less prepared songs, while less colorful birds have more elaborate songs. This idea is definitely nothing new; Charles Darwin (ref & ref) and Alfred Russel Wallace also discussed this pattern.

Indeed, these known motives are the basis for the "transmission hypothesis" (ref.). The theoretical justification on which this hypothesis is based is that if two different sex signals are expensive to develop or express men, then the inverse intersectal evolutionary compensation (eg Ref & ref) is expected to occur between related taxa. A few weeks ago, scientists from the University of Oxford reported strong support for this hypothesis in birds and found that the evidence for this pattern remains strong even if other key factors are considered, including habitat types, ecological divergence and inter -sectic interactions (ref).

According to these studies, how to develop a bird race (often called BoP) All things – Stunning colors of feathers, made decorations, tricky calls and seemingly impossible, shapes that move yards?

A newly published study by evolutionary biologist Russell Ligon, a researcher at the Ornithology Laboratory of the University of Cornell ("Lab of O") and colleagues, suggests that the choice of mathematics in birds' paradises is not primarily focused on one characteristic, but instead, women assess the overall attractiveness a man – his color and decorations of feathers, as well as his ability to sing and dance. In addition, Ligon and his associates also found evidence that perhaps the chosen ones might even have expressed another feature: whether men show females in the crochet, in the forest, or in the forest.

Left: adult male king Saxon bird of paradise, Pteridophora alberti. The displays of the wine cellar of this type are evident from the forest image. Right: adult male is a small bird of paradise, Paradisaea is a minor, the performances are visible in the forest.
(Credit: Tim Laman, with permission.)Tim Laman

According to this study all these properties developed in tandem under the influence of genetics and the environment and are the result of millions of years of precise choice of mate. Dr. In these articles, Ligon and his associates refer to these characteristics as the "phenotype of enjoyment".

What features are included in the "transplant phenotype" for birds of paradise?

Dr. Ligon and his colleagues analyzed 961 videos and 176 audio recordings that were stored in the Archives of the Macauley Library in Cornell's archive, and examined 393 museum samples from the American Museum of Natural History. Based on their studies, it was found that a certain collection of properties and behavior appears to include a "transplant phenotype" for birds of paradise (Figure 2):

  • Because the number of colors on a male increase, as well as the number of different sounds that he makes
  • The most flourished dancers have a great repertoire of sounds
  • Men who show women in the group (known as a medicine) have more colors, so they are more visible during the competition

Figure 2. Signal diversity indices differ greatly in birds' arenas. In order to facilitate the interpretation of the variation of the signal diversity in the family (Paradisaeidae), we created tailored diversity for each type of signal (color, behavior, sound), so that we created (left) a composite measure of the overall diversity of the signal (thermal mapped to phylogeny) and (right) stacked bars showing the change of relative diversity for each type of signal for each type. (doi: 10.1371 / revija.pbio.2006962)doi: 10.1371 / journal.pbio.2006962

"I think Figure 2 captures some of the most interesting differences in the variety of signals between species," said Dr. Ligon in e-mail. "For example, you see that it is Parotias (mostly black, actually ultra black [more here] birds that appear on the forest) have low color diversity (a small red line) and very high behavioral diversity (purple bar). "

But that's all about cumulative power female choice

"But the KEY number, according to science, is figure 3," continued Dr. Ligon. "Those positive slopes that show that species with high color diversity also have high acoustic diversity (Figure 3a) and that species with high behavioral diversity have high acoustic diversity (Figure 3b), * a thing * that truly makes BoPs special and suggests that women choose partners on the basis of combination of decorations. The idea that birds of paradise partners are based on integrated multicomponent decorations ornaments is similar to the way in which people evaluate artwork (ie, we evaluate the essence of work, which is more as a simple sum of its parts), "explained Dr. Ligon in e-mail.

Figure 3. Positive phylogenetic correlations exist between several indicators of diversity in the evolutionary scale. (A) Color and acoustic diversity are positively related to paradise birds, where species with greater color diversity show greater acoustic diversity in control over behavioral diversity, display height and proximity in mPGLS regression. (B) Behavior and acoustic diversity are positively related to paradise birds, among which species with greater behavioral diversity show greater acoustic diversity in controlling color diversity, display height and proximity in mPGLS regression. Point types represent peak values ​​for altered behavioral and color diversity of logs. Exp lek = exploded drug; mPGLS = multiple phylogenetic generalized smallest squares; my = a million years. (doi: 10.1371 / revija.pbio.2006962)doi: 10.1371 / journal.pbio.2006962

The court's location is also very important

Despite being brilliantly colorful, exquisitely decorated and surprisingly musical, Dr. Ligon and his colleagues found that the location of the stage where events take place is also important for birds of paradise.

"The species that appear on the ground have several dance moves, such as those shown in the canopy or forest canyon," said co-author of the research, evolutionary biologist Edwin Scholes, co-founder and head of the laboratory of the O bird race project, in a publicity. For example, in the woods of the canopy, a man sings more complicated poems, as he would be more likely to hear them closer to women. At the same time, these male horses had less complicated dance moves. In contrast, the species that appeared on the forest.

"On dark forest soil, men may need their own game to get women's attention," stressed Dr. Scholes.

Illustrations of paradise birds Szabolcs Kókay; illustration of the background and graphic design of Jillian Ditner.
(Graphic love of Cornell's Ornithology Laboratory.)Cornell Laboratory for ornithology

Is it a combination of ecology and the choice of mother, what makes special birds of paradise?

"Paradise birds are" special "because the positive correlation between the ornaments between species is a truly rare phenomenon in nature," explained Dr. Ligon in e-mail. These findings show that men may be able to develop new features while still maintaining their overall attractiveness because women choose partners on the basis of a combination of properties.

"Long-standing hypotheses about why BoP focuses on the unique natural and evolutionary history of this group," explained Dr. Ligon. "They live in New Guinea and tropical North Australia, in regions where fruits are largely unavailable to mammal competitors and reduced pressure from the fruit. This suggests that they can more easily meet their energy requirements and that they need to" care "for predators less likely to be free to focus on the attractiveness / choice of the group. "

"In addition, the topography of New Guinea (which has spurred the isolation and diversity of human languages [more here]), he allegedly contributed to the independent orientations of the evolution of ornaments [in birds-of-paradise], "Added Dr. Ligon.

Adult male magnificent riflebird (Ptiloris magnificus). This species of medium-sized bird species grows on women in the forest.
(Credit: Tim Laman, with permission.)Tim Laman

But are you evolutionary "compromises" or something else?

"I never believed there were any compromises anywhere!" Exclaimed Professor Prum by e-mail after reading the paper.

"The contribution is very interesting, but the authors are still looking for some kind of powerful explanation when there is no need," explained Professor Prum. "I do not think BoP is special in any way except in the power of sexual choice that takes a long time."

One could almost think of male paradise birds as lively masterpieces created by prudent women.

Source:

Russell A. Ligon, Christopher D. Diaz, Janelle L. Morano, Jolyon Troscianko, Martin Stevens, Annalyse Moskeland, Timothy G. Laman and Edwin Scholes, III (2018). Development of correlated complexity in radically different encouraging signs of birds of paradise, PLoS biology, 16(11): e2006962 doi: 10.1371 / journal.pbio.2006962

Also quote:

Charles Darwin (1871). Downhill and gender selection. (London, United Kingdom: John Murray: Amazon USA / Amazon UK)

For birds of paradise, being hot is not enough to win Matej, maybe they also have shifts | @GrrlScientist


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