In the Taipei Computer show in the past 2019, AMD's 7N processors AMD smashed and blew the audience. I do not know how many people are shouting AMD! ! PCIe
With the use of 4.0 technology, the bandwidth is just doubled to 16 GT / s, which has become one of AMD's new CPU highlights. Is such high-speed bandwidth useful for computers? Why doesn't Intel worry?
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The standardization of PC is not good when PCIe 4.0 is out.
The full name of PC is peripheral component interconnect Express, which can be translated at high-speed connection standard for peripheral devices. The PCE channel contains two data channels to ensure the efficiency of data reception and transmission. Each application has an individually allocated bandwidth and does not take the total bandwidth.
Meanwhile, the PCIe 3.0 standard is commonly used in our computers, which is the standard established 9 years ago. In 2003, PCIe 1.0 was released, with a speed of 2.5 GT / s. Then PCIe 2.0 (5.0 GT / s) was released in 2006 and PCIe 3.0 (8 GT / s) was released in 2010. PC will set new standards in about 3-4 years. However, PCIe 4.0 waited for 7 years and did not issue PCIe 4.0 (16 GT / s) until 2017. When 4.0 is not yet available, PCIe 5.0 (32 GT / s) was released early in 2019.
Since the beginning of the 2011 HD 7000 series of graphics cards using PCIe 3.0, PCIe 3.0 has been popular for 8 years. The emergence of PCIe 4.0 doesn't seem to be a good time.
Just over a year after the release of PCIe 3.0 in 2017, PCI-SIG, which manages and defines the PCIe standard in January 2019, released version 0.9 of the latest PCIe 5.0 specification, while PCIe 5.0 is also backward compatible with 3.0 and 4.0 devices , Which caused many vendors directly to complete the PCIe 4.0 development of PCIe 5.0 specification devices.
Take the first step? AMD Releases First Psyche 4.0 Consumer Level Processor
AMD was the first to announce a new generation of ASER Processors supporting PCIe 4.0 interface at the Taipei Computer Show at the end of May this year. In addition to the 7 Nm process and high frequency, the Intel support for PCIe 4.0 is the highlight of the conference. Compared with Buflink's buckling, which doubles the bandwidth of PSYE 3.0, the overall performance of the A platform is greatly improved.
In the computer display, many manufacturers introduced AMD's new CPU motherboards. We can see that a small fan is added to the motherboard on the South Bridge chip, and there is one more noise source in the chassis. The appearance of the small fan is also connected to the PC 4.0 application. Because the data processing work is unverified, the South Bridge is a small stove. There is no way to add a small cooling fan to the South Bridge.
At the same time, we also saw ultra-super high-speed SSD storage based on PCI 4.0 at the Typewriter computer display. In the Taipei Computer Display, Gigabyte installs the fastest and largest PCI-E 4.0 AIC SSD. This is still the strongest SSD read and write speed has reached 15,000MB / s, see clearly there are 5 digits! And its capacity has reached 8TB, I can not imagine how high its price, and I do not know if it will really push the consumer market. The group E16 Master is used, in which the AIC version consists of four m 2 SSDs, RAID 0, each disk is PCI 4.0 x 4, and the four disk groups are PC 4, X 16.
A huge boost to PSYE 4.0
CPU has only 16 PC channels
Even with today's PSY 4.0 devices, AMD resumes 93900X has only 16 PCs. On the motherboard, there are only 16 channels in the CPIE slowest to the CPU. At present, this slot is inserted into the graphics card, which can reach PCIe × 16 full speed. When two video cards are used, only 8 + 8 channels can be realized. When three PSE devices are connected, they are allocated 8 + 4 + 4, which means that the PCI channel is limited. This is the part of the number of CPU channels in the CPU's mainstream platform. There are only 16 directly connected CPUs, due to the number of channel limitations the connection speed of multiple devices will be reduced, and multiple high-performance PCIs. Devices cannot achieve full performance when connected. When PCIe 4.0 doubles the bandwidth, the communication speed between multiple PC devices and the CPU will be more beneficial to each hardware's performance.
New possibilities brought by high-speed data transmission
With the popularity of 3G technology, we have found that high-speed data transmission will change the industry and even spawn new industries. 5G's hardware bandwidth requirements are actually turned over several times, and high-frequency signals and signal coverage are good. It is really necessary to have a huge upgrade in the industry to achieve such performance. And in 2-3 years, the number of devices that enable data interconnection in the home use scenario will increase dramatically, and the PC industry may be able to make new changes, and PCs may become the existence of personal servers and data processing centers.
Today's smart devices do not require high data connections. Of course, the overall interconnection and data exchange between devices is not high. This is because personal data processing is now based on cloud devices, but reliability is not enough. With the development of true personal assistants + smart devices, the demand for personal PC data processing centers will gradually emerge. The most secure method is to combine local server + cloud data processing, and PCIe 4.0 has met the basic needs of personal data processing centers.
However, PCIe 4.0 seems to be just beautiful.
High upgrade cost, blocking the popularity of new equipment
However, PCIe 4.0 looks very good at present. The current cost of PCIe 4.0 is still quite high, because the faster the data transmission speed, the corresponding signal attenuation will increase, and the requirements for the components and materials will be corresponding. The higher. According to previous news, the total 16-channel PC 4.0 reteam chip requires $ 15-25, the motherboard upgrade costs about $ 100, and the high-end top-level motherboard can cost more. Previously, some users broke the news that MSI's top CS570 Super God Motherboard is priced at 777 euros (about 6,000 yuan), which is really more expensive than the CPU.
Demand in the consumer market is not obvious.
In the past two years of PCIe 4.0, in addition to the enterprise market, there is no reason for the consumer market to be extremely mobile. In addition to the high price, there is also a reason why consumer graphics cards, processors and networks are no different for speed-doubling PCI 4.0. Demand. That's why PCIe 4.0 is not released. As early as the PCI 3.0 era, some have tested it. Even today, the graphics card uses 2.0 × 16 channels, and the performance loss is not obvious.
In addition, there are not a lot of devices in the consumer market that require high PC channels. Currently, the devices that require high-speed PCI channels in the consumer market are graphics cards and full-speed SSDs. Take SSD, 16-speed PCS speed SSD does not reach the bandwidth limit, but the number of channels is full, and the price is still expensive, it is not a consumer product.
The enterprise market is beginning to abandon PC
The high demand for PC is the high-speed data processing environment, but PC has its own data processing environment flaws.
PC in the home computer is a very fast and practical link technology because of the small number of devices connected to the motherboard and there is little need to extend the application across multiple computers. At the data center, each PC device has its own separate memory pool, and communication between different devices becomes very inefficient because of bandwidth and latency. NVIDIA and AMD have developed NVLINK and infinitive technologies to address this issue, and CCSL is Intel's countermeasure.
In March 2019, Intel launched a new data device interconnection protocol CXL (Compute EXPRESS LINK) for data center, high-performance computing, and AI. The technology is based on the physical and electrical implementation of the complete PC 5, but does not require a specifically designed interface that simplifies server hardware design and reduces overall system cost. Intel is a lock alliance with Alibaba, Dell EMC, Facebook, Google, HPE, Huawei, and Microsoft to develop the protocol to eliminate bottlenecks in computational-intensive workloads such as CPUs and accelerators. The role played by Intel is the same as its role in USB and PSYE development. It shares the technical achievements with the Alliance members and continues to develop together.
The timing is wrong Of
יע of 5.0
Since PCIe 5.0 is backward compatible with 3.0 / 4.0, the 4.0 status is somewhat embarrassing. Of course, the root cause is that the 4.0 standard is too late. It was seven years away from the 3.0 specification in 2010, and the PCI-SIG organization is aiming to restore the established reach of the eight year standard.
The bandwidth of PSIE 4.0 was doubled compared to 32 GB / s (CS16) from PSYE 3.0, and it reached 64 GB / s (X 16), and PCIe 5.0 doubled this time. It is 128 GB / s (16). They are also using the 128B / 130B system of PCIe 3.0, but the PCIE 4.0 transfer rate is up to 16 GT / s, and PCIe 5.0 is up to 32 GT / s.
The planning of the PCI-SIG is, Of
PCIe 4.0 and 5.0 specification products will co-exist in the market for a long time, of which 5.0 will be used only for high performance computing, while the consumer side is all 4.0.Meanwhile, Intel's enterprise-class SLC solid-state disk, the Ruler SSD, is designed directly for PCIe 5.0.
Today, PCIe 3.0 is really enough to meet the consumer market. Of all aspects, PCIe 4.0 is a bit out of reach due to various factors such as cost, timing, market, etc. Perhaps because of a variety of factors, Intel doesn't seem to care about PCIe 4.0 and the CPU has There have always been no new plans, the news is that Intel will develop PCIe 5.0 devices directly beyond PCIe 4.0, and PCIe 5.0 devices will be directly back compatible with 3.0 and 4.0 devices, for consumers, the upgrade cost of PCIe 5.0 will be very high However, compatibility will reduce the cost, and so on Consumer market can be gradually gradually.
However, it is better to buy new ones than to buy old ones. Yes, my explanation and analysis above are based on the current hardware equipment and software requirements, analysis of the current PC 4.0 אַציע situation, but with the increasing demand for personal PC data throughput, some years later software and hardware development will probably keep up, and After the scale, the corresponding costs will gradually decline. After all, our main memory capacity is from 1GB to 16GB, so we can detect all the memory consumed by the software, the desire of players and manufacturers for the "higher, faster and stronger" device.