For a long time, it was the "dark side," although this part of the moon is also illuminated by the sun.
The "dark" refers, however, to the fact that it is a face that can not be seen from the earth.
And, surely, because it is not explored No spacecraft has been removed on its surface. Until now
Because of this Friday, China launched the Chang-4-mission that had a descent module and an exploration vehicle that is scheduled to land in the Won Kerman Crater lying on that dark side.
- Why no country has not sent a man back to the moon since 1972 in Apollo XVIII
- How do we know that the Moon is moving away?
The mission departed from the Xichang satellite launch center and the descent on the Moon is expected in early January.
The Vaun Carmann Crater is a place of interest for scientists because it is within the oldest and largest impact zone on the lunar surface, the Aitken Pool.
It is believed that it was probably created by the impact of a giant asteroid billions of years ago.
With a phenomenon known as "synchronous rotation", we see only one face of the moon because it takes the same time to rotate on its own axis as to do it around the ground.
The Chang # 39 mission aims to open The road for the shipment to the ground of stone samples from that lunar area.
The exploration vehicle plans to survey the geology of the area and the composition of its soil.
The dark side or, rather, the most remote hemisphere of the moon looks different from the one we see on earth.
The scientists explain that it has a senior and thicker crust, full of craftsmen. There are also some of these "seas," the dark basalt planes created by the lava flow that are visible on the live side.
It is believed that the strong impact produced by the Aitken basin might have traveled to the crust until it reached the lunar mantle. The instruments of Chang-4-4 can investigate if this is what happened and neglected light on the early history of the only natural satellite on earth.
The mission will also teach the conditions for the transmission of radio waves from the far side of the moon. The test is designed to lay the foundations for the future creation of radio telescopes In that area of вЂ <вЂ <the natural satellite, which is isolated from the radio signals from the ground.
The module of descent will carry with it a container with 3 kilograms of seeds of potatoes and arabidopsis, a kind of herbaceous plants, to perform a biological experiment.
The experiment in the "Lunar Minibiosphere" was designed jointly by 28 Chinese universities.
"We want to study the resection of seeds and photosynthesis on the moon," Liu Hanlong, director of the experiment and vice president of Chongqing University (located in Central China), told Xinhua News Agency a few months ago.
Xie Gengxin, the chief designer of the experiment told Xinhua: "We have to keep the temperature in the minibiosphere in a range between 1 and 30 degrees, and properly control the moisture and nutrition."
"We will use a tube to show the natural light of the surface of the moon in the container to make the plants grow."
When located on the remote side of the natural satellite, the descent module will not be in the line of sight. Therefore, To send the information to the control center must use CCCIAO satellite, Placed in orbit by China in May.
The design of the probe is based on its predecessor, Chang's E3, which is located in the IMBryum area in 2013, although it has some important modifications.
China's lunar ambitions
The mission exploration vehicle charges two cameras; A radiation experiment built in Germany called Lane: and a spectrometer that will perform low frequency radio astronomy records.
The vehicle carries a panoramic camera; A radar to explore under the lunar surface; An imaging spectrometer to identify minerals; And an experiment to examine the interaction between the solar wind (a stream of particles released from the sun) and the lunar surface.
Chang & E4 is part of a major program of lunar exploration by China. The first and second Chang's missions are designed to collect information from the orbit, while the third and fourth are built to perform operations on the surface of the earth's satellite.
The upcoming Chang 'E-5 and Chang' E-6 missions will aim to bring to the ground samples of rocks and lone soil.
Materials and Energy for 10,000 years
In 2013, the BBC has the opportunity to interview Ouyang Zeyuan, Chinese researcher in the section of Lunar exploration and deep space about the sending of the Chang # 3-mission.
Ziuan said the scientific mission would serve to test new technology and added that "China needs its own intellectual team to explore the Moon and the Solar System".
The researcher explained the goals of the program: They were reached for London, land safely, bringing samples collected on the moon to the ground and, at the end, sending mansions there.
According to the vision of the scientist, the exploitation of the moon can be invaluable for humanity.
Since there is no solar panels can work much more efficiently, and how Ouyang puts it, a belt of the panels on our satellite can "sustain the whole world".
The Moon is also rich in helium-3, a possible fuel for nuclear fusion, that "Can solve human energy demand for at least 10,000 years"
"It is full of resources, mainly rare minerals, titanium, uranium, which are very sparsely ground, and the resources can be used without limitations."
"There are many possible developments, it is beautiful, so we hope to use the moon to support the sustainable development of human rights and society," said the Chinese expert.