This week the Institute of Public Health (ISP) has a terrible figure: Chile is among the 10 countries in the world with the highest increase in HIV, Whereas only between 2010 and 2017, An increase of 96% is registered In new cases of HIV / AIDS.
Also, Only between January and September of this year, 5,206 new cases were identified, An increase of 21% in relation to the same period of 2017, when the figure is 4,304.
This information allows you to project At the end of the year it would be between 6,500 and 7,000 infections In total, what would mean An increase of more than 100% In the last eight years.
This information is not only a project on citizens, but also on public institutions, so much Anya Maria San Martin, head of the HIV / AIDS Department of the Ministry of Health presented her resignation to the position In the middle of the strong increase in recent times.
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The experts in this regard agree The best form of prevention should be informed, So in T13 we tell you Everything you need to know about the virus and the best way to take care of yourself.
What is HIV / AIDS and how are they different?
The World Health Organization explains that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system and weakens defense systems Against infections and against certain types of cancer.
As the virus destroys immune cells and impairs the normal functioning of immunity, The infected person gradually falls into an immunodeficiency situation. Immune function is usually measured by counting CD4 liposites.
Immunodeficiency Increases the risk of contracting numerous infections, diseases and diseases That people with a healthy immune system can fight.
The most advanced phase of HIV infection is the immune deficiency syndrome or AIDS That, depending on the person, It may take 2 to 2 years to make it manifest. People with AIDS Can get some types of cancer and infections Or represent other serious clinical manifestations.
Signs and Symptoms
The symptoms of HIV infection are different according to the stage. Although the maximum infectivity tends to be reached in the first few months, many infected ignore that they are transmitting more advanced stages.
Sometimes, In the first week after infection The person does not remove any symptomswhile At other times it gives A flu-like image with Heat, headache, rash or sore throat.
As this infection wipes the immune system, The person can represent Other signs and symptoms, such as Inflammation of the lymph nodes, weight loss, fever, diarrhea and cough.
In the absence of treatment can appear serious diseases such as tuberculosis, menditisitis Cryptococcal, serious bacterial infections Or concerts as lymphoma Or Kaposi Sarcoma, among others.
How is it transmitted?
HIV is transmitted through the exchange of certain body fluids From the infected person, Like blood, breast milk, sperm or vaginal secretions.
It is not possible to be infected in common everyday contacts such as kissing, Hogs or handshakes or By sharing personal objects, water or food.
Too Can be transmitted through contaminated blood transfusion or needles, Earrings or other sharp instruments.
There are some Behaviors that increase the risk Of a person contracting HIV:
- Have anal or vaginal sex without a condom.
- Having another sexually transmitted infection such as syphilis, herpes, chlamydia, gonorrhea or bacterial vaginosis.
- Share needles, sewing, Drug solutions or other contaminated infective material to consume injectable drugs.
- Get injections, blood transfusions Or tissue transplant without safety guarantees or are subject to medical procedures, including cats Or perforations with non-sterile instruments.
- Accidenting with a needle, Injury that affects healthy personnel in particular.
Surgery tests, Including rapid tests and enzyme immunoassays (EIA), They detect the presence or absence of antibodies against HIV-1, HIV-2 and the P24 antigen of the virus.
No test allows you to diagnose the presence of HIV on yourself, That's it It is important to connect the tests In a specific order that is validated according to the prevalence of the virus in the population under inspection.
In most people, Antibodies to HIV appear 28 days after infection And, therefore, can not be detected before. This period is called the seroconversion time and it is the moment of greatest infectivity, But transmission can occur in all phases of the infection.
It has a treatment, but it does not heal
It is possible to inhibit HIV through treatments In which three or more are combined Antiretroviral drugs, which slow down the replication of the virus In the body and allows The immune system resists strength And ability to fight infections.
There is no cure for HIV infection, but good treatment With Antirevroirals followed the letter Slows the evolution of the infection to almost stop. More and more people who are infected with HIV, even in poor countries, They can stay in good condition and be productive for long periods of time.
Who recommends giving all the infected people of art for life, Including children, adolescents and adults, and pregnant and breastfeeding women, regardless of their clinical status and their CD4 count.
In mid-2017, There are 20.9 million people in the world infected with HIV on antiretroviral therapy. In 2016, the world of coverage is 53% of adults and children.