The great Hadron Collider is shutting down, and will stay down for two years while performing major upgrades



The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is getting a big boost to its performance. Unfortunately, for fans of earth-breaking physics, the whole thing should be closed for two years while the work is done. But once it is back up and running, its enhanced capabilities will make it even more powerful.

The essence of the great Hadron Collider is to accelerate particles and then direct them to collide with each other in chambers. Cameras and detectors are trained on the collisions, and the results are monitored in minute detail. It's all about revealing new particles and new reactions between particles, and watching as particles decay.

The shuttle is called Long Shutdown 2 (LS 2.) The first shutdown is LS1, and it was between 2013 and 2015. During LS1, the power of the collider was improved, and so its detection capabilities. The same will happen in LS2, when engineers will intensify and upgrade the entire accelerator complex and the detectors. The work is in preparation for the next LHC flow, which will start in 2021. It is also a project called the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, which starts in 2025.

Look inside ALICE at the Large Hadron Collider. Alice is one of the LHC's four particle detectors. Image: CERN / LHC
Look inside ALICE at the Large Hadron Collider. Alice is one of the LHC's four particle detectors. Image: CERN / LHC

The flow of experiments done between LS1 and LS2 is called the second flow and it was from 2015 to 2018. That flow produced some impressive results, and a ton of data still worked through. According to CERN, the second round resulted in 16 million million proton protons collisions in an energy of 13 tew (terra-electron vaults) and large datasets for lead-lead collisions in an energy of 5.02 tew. This means that it is the equivalent of 1,000 years of 24/7 video streaming stored in CERN's data archive.

"The second run of the LHC is impressive …" – Frédérick Bordry, CERN Director for Accelerators and Technology.

The huge data cache of the experiments during LHC's second run durfs the data of the first flow, and it's all because the energy level of the collider is almost doubled to 13 tew. It gets harder and harder to raise the energy level of a collider, and the second shutdown will see the energy raised from 13 tew to 14 tew.

"The second run of the LHC was impressive, as we were able to deliver well beyond our objectives and expectations, producing five times more data than in the first run, in the unprecedented energy of 13 tew," said Frédérick Bordry , CERN Director for Accelerators and Technology. "With the second long shutdown start now, we'll prepare the car for even more collisions at the draft energy of 14 tew."

According to every measure, the LHC is a success. For some years, the existence of the Higgs Boson and the Higgs field is the central question in physics. But the technology and engineering required to build a collective strong enough to find it is simply not available. The construction of the LHK made the discovery of the Higgs Boson possible in 2012.

"The Higgs Boson is a special particle …" – Fabiola Giananotti, CERN Director-General.

"In addition to many other beautiful results, over the past few years, the LHC experiments have made great research into the understanding of the Higgs Boson properties," adds Fabiola Giananotti, CERN Director General. "The Higgs Boson is a special particle, very different from the other elementary particles observed so far; its properties may give us useful indications about physics beyond the standard model."

The disclosure of the Long-Theorized Higgs Boson is the LHC's crowning achievement, but not its only one. Many parts of the standard physics model were difficult to test before the LHC was built. Hundreds of scientific papers have been issued on the results of the LHC, and some new particles have been discovered, including the Pentatexpox exotic and a new particle with two hard quarks, called "Xick ++".

Among the Large Hadron Collider's discoveries is the so-called
Among the Large Hadron Collider's discoveries is the so-called "Xick ++", a particle with two difficult quarks. Picture: CERN

After the upgrades in LS2, the third run will begin. One of the projects in the third round is the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project. Luminosity is one of the two primary considerations in the Collider. The first is voltage, which is improved from 13 tew to 14 tew during ls 2. The other is luminosity.

Luminosity is an increased number of collisions, and so, more data. Since many of the things the physicists want to observe are very rare, a higher number of collisions increases the odds of seeing them. During the 2017, the LHC produced about 3,000,000 higgs bosons per year, although the high-luminosity LHC will produce at least 15,000,000 higgs bosons per year. This is important because although there was a huge achievement to detect the Higgs Boson, there is still a lot of physicists do not know about the elusive particle. By quintuping the number of Higgs Boson produced, physicists will learn a lot.

One of the Large Hadron Collider's Massive Dipole Magnets Being Replaced During Long Shutdown 1. Image Credit: CERN / Anna Pantelia
One of the Large Hadron Collider's Massive Dipole Magnets Being Replaced During Long Shutdown 1. Image Credit: CERN / Anna Pantelia

"The rich fashion of the second run enables the researchers to look for very rare processes." – Eckhard Elsen, Director for Research and Computing at CERN.

All the data stored in Serena from the LHC's second run will mean physicists are kept occupied during ls 2. It may be hidden in that massive collection of data that never saw. There will be no rest for humanity's arm army of particle physics.

"The rich fashion of the second run enables the researchers to look for very rare processes," said Eichard Elsen, Director of Research and Computing at CERN. "They will be busy over the shutdown of the huge data sample for possible new physiotherapists who have not had the chance to emerge from the standard model of the standard, which will lead us to the HL-LHC when the data pattern Will increase by another order of magnitude. "


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