Robin Scholz | News-Gazette (AP)
URBANA (AP) – Your poodle could have a French pedigree, but Siberia played a major role in introducing dogs to the Americas.
This is part of the research conducted at the University of Illinois and the Illinois State Archaeological Survey, based on dog remains, including two dogs buried back to a Illinois site just across the Mississippi River of St. Louis.
That loving, ceremonial burial and about 50 fossilized dogs help tell the story, the news-gazet reports.
The genetic code tells us not only about dogs but also the human being who crossed a land bridge that once existed between Siberia and Alaska, said Repin Malchi, a professor in Anthropology, and in the School of Integrative Biology.
The Illinois State Archaeological Survey has found some sites with dogs in them.
Not having to destroy valuable scientific and cultural relics, Mali's team took samples from damaged dogs that could be close to 10,000 years old, probably the oldest in America.
"The amount is off the number of (dental) cavity," he said.
Molly worked closely with Kelley Whit Dillon, who conducted the Mitochondrial DNA Journalist, following the Hat's Marathon Line, as a graduate student here. (She is now a post-doctoral researcher at the University of California-Merced.)
In a clean room – not a trace of contaminants – the researchers extracted the DNA. There was then sequence in another lab to create a "genetic library."
"The DNA will give us millions of DNA bits," Malhi said, some of them contaminated long ago by microbes or even human interference.
The former dogs in the Americans arrived from Siberia, Malhi said, and largely disappeared after European contact, an extreme version of the population decline with Native Americans after contact.
During the Ice Age (lasting up to 14,500 years ago), sea levels were lower, and the area between Western Siberia and East Alaska was all the ground, rather than the straightening process we know today. The area is known as "Beringia", and people (and dogs) are able to cross the ground bridge because of the lower sea level, whit Dylan added.
Scientists debate how exactly native dogs generally fell out of the genus pool: our ancestors could have killed them in preventing inter-breeding with the dogs they would be bred to hunt for, or they could have been eaten in a hungry time.
Disease is the cause that comes most often, since the same was loyal to Native Americans.
In the science journal, the researchers argued the first dogs in the Americas, not domesticated North North Americans.
Most likely, they wrote, the dogs followed companionship over a land bridge that once connected North Asia through Siberia in the Americas.
In an archaeological site near Kahoka called Johnny B. Good, other researchers found dogs with marks on their shoulders.
Mali said these marks may mean that dogs are not only our best friends but our co-workers, helping to draw carts of supplies or other kind of work similar to their continued use with sleds in the Northwest.
Mali's special training genetic history, so his articles have titles as "distribution of y chromosomes between native North American: a study of atapascan population history."
He worked closely with former peoples in British Columbia and Alaska, including an invaluable food resource, the locks.
Nuclear DNA and Mitochondrial DNA say stories in different ways.
Nuclear DNA "is the type of DNA that most people think of – your 23 pairs of chromosomes are all nuclear DNA, and you inherit one half of them from your mother and one half of them from your father," Wit Dilon explains.
"Your mitochondrial DNA is inherited from your mother," she said, "and found in many more copies per cell than your nuclear DNA, so it is easier to find in ancient DNA samples, which are usually degraded and fragmented."
There are questions when and where dogs are damaged.
"Dogs are likely to be damaged between 15,000 and 21,000 years ago, somewhere in Europe or Asia," said Whit Dylan. "Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia and Central Asia have all been suggested as places where dogs are brought, but we do not have a clear answer."
Maybe these have arisen some "birth" places.
By the way, that poop that ends every dog walking? A pain to you, but of great value to science as fossilized copolytes.
UI Graduate Anthropology Student Karartik Yirlagadda is looking at the Microbiobes in the Coprolites, working with Malchi.
In modern studies, he knows, tested samples contain a large number of microbes that reflect a few of the factors, including the genetics of dietetic, diet and environment.
"Since the capolites represent an ancient felic pattern, they may still contain some amount of residual DNA from the microbes that lived in the dogs at that time, which is particularly interesting because old microbiomas give us an insight into an individual's Life History, "said Yagagadada.