Great Hydraulic Refrigerator Replacement plans unveiled – here's what it can reveal



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The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. During its ten years of operation, it has found wonderful discoveries, including the long-sought after Higgs Boson. On January 15, an international team of physicists unveiled the concept design for a new particle accelerator that would cherry the LHC.

The "Future Circular Collider" was conceived as a successor to the LHC, and – given the green light – it would allow physicists to seek answers to some of the greatest physics mysteries. This includes finding out what the vast majority of the universe was actually doing or discovering entirely new physics.

The proposal envisions a new 100km circle around the earth, encircling the city of Geneva and the surrounding countryside. The 27cm LHC would feed particles into the new collar – as a motorway slipway. This would eventually allow it to collide particles with energies around seven times higher than the LHC can carry. This would allow the collider to make particles beyond the reach of the LHC – pushing particle physics deep into an unexplored microscopic realm.

Gate to a dark world

The Future Circular Collector is indeed some projects in one. The first phase imitates a car that electrons collide with their so-called "anti-engineer versions", positron. All of the particles are thought to have an anti-doping companion, almost identical, but with the opposite charge. When an issue and an antimatter particle encounter, they completely annihilated each other, with all their energy converted into new particles.

The collision energy of such a collar can be very precisely controlled. Also, collisions would be very "pure" compared to the LHC, which colloid protons (particles that make up the atomic nucleus with Neutron). Protons are not fundamental particles like electrons, but smaller-sized haphazard bags, including quartz and glycine. When protons collide, their inserts spread all over the place, making it much harder to place new particles between the debris.

Detector layout.
CERN

The first-ever electron-positron collar target would be to study the Higgs Boson, the particles involved at the beginning of the masses of the other fundamental particles. The new colleague would create millions of Higgs Bosons and measure their properties in unprecedented detail.

Such precision measurements offer many possibilities for new discoveries. One of the most tantalizing is that the Higs can play as the gateway to the world of common atomic matter we inhabit, with a hidden world of particles that are otherwise undetectable. Some 85% of the universe's universe is "dark", made of particles we have never been able to see. We just know it exists because of the gravitational pull it has on the matter. Excitingly, an electron-positron collider can reveal the Higgs boson dilation in the hidden particles.

In the second phase, the collar would be replaced by a far more powerful proton proton caller – reaching collision energies of 100 Trillion Electron Volts. It is a discovery machine capable of producing a huge range of new particles that physicists may be able to reach to reach the LHC.

In particular, it would almost completely explore the energy range where most forms of dark matter are likely to find. It would also be able to probe the conditions that were a billiard of a second after the Big Bang. The moment in the history of the universe is critical when the Higgs field – an all-pervading energy field, the Higgs Boson is slightly burst in – collapsed into its current state, which is what drives the fundamental particles .

Understanding how the Higgs field bought its current energy is one of the greatest problems in physics, as it can be unbelievably finely tuned to allow atoms – and so stars, planets and people – to exist.

As a physicist working on the LHC beauty experiment, I personally hope this new collider can eventually help us solve the puzzle of which the universe is made almost entirely and not antimatter.

Hefty price tag

The first phase of the new collider would come online in the 2040s, following the final run of the upgraded LHC. The more powerful Proton-proton caller would be installed in the 2050's. Both projects come with a hyped price tag: € 9 billion for the electron-positron car and a further € 15 billion for the proton proton caller. This has come up with obvious criticism that money could have been better spent elsewhere, for example in climate change.

Map.

John Womerley, a senior physicist involved in the Future Circle Collider, tells me that beyond the value of fundamental knowledge in his own right, there will be other significant short-term benefits. He said: "The FCC is pushing the development of innovative technologies to solve new challenges. The world is dedicated to web, Wi-Fi and superconducting magnet-based magnets, all of which have been developed to meet fundamental physics requirements." Power to inspire the next generation of physicists.

Ultimately, such an ambitious scheme will only be possible through a large international collaboration, with funding from dozens of countries. The project already includes 1300 co-workers from 150 universities, research institutes and industrial partners around the world. Meanwhile, a similar collider project is also considered by China, perhaps the only country capable of mobilizing the resources necessary to build such a vast car.

Advocates of the Future Circular Colleague hope the project will be adopted in the new European strategy for particle physics, which will be released in 2020. If taken, it will begin a long process of research and development, but also convince national government And the general public that the exciting fundamental research that could be done at the collider is worth investing in.

Political challenges are huge, but physicists are determined not to seek out a deeper understanding of our universe.

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