Fish in the deep dark of the ocean found to have a color vision


The tube-eye fish, Stilphorus Chordatus, was found to be used in five different eyes. The long cylindrical shape of his eyes increases the light and also enables the fish to move their eyes from a horizontal to a vertical position. Credit: Dr. When-Sung Chung, University of Queensland, Australia.

An international team of researcher found a previously unknown visual system that could allow color vision to appear in deep, dark waters, which animals were processed to be color-blind. Research selected on the cover of May 10, 2019, issue of journal Science.

"This is the first paper that examines a variety of fisheries and finds it versatile and variable in their visual systems," said Karen Carleton, a Maryland-based biology professor and co-author of the paper. "The genes that determine the spectrum of light Our eyes are sensitive to turning to a much more variable set of genes, causing greater visual system evolution much more quickly than we anticipated."

Expanded eyes use two types of photoreceptor cells to see – rods and cones. Both rods and cones contain light-sensitive pigments called opcins, which absorb specific wavelengths of light and convert them into electrochemical signals that the brain interprets as color. The number and type of appearance expressed in a photoreceptor cell determines the colors an animal perceives.

Before the new study, it is assumed that cones are responsible for color vision, and rods are responsible for detecting brightness in dark conditions. This new job indicates that this is not the case. By analyzing the diamonds of 101 fish, the researchers discovered that some fish contained multiple rod inclines raising the possibility of having a rod-based color vision.

Cones typically contain genes for expressing multiple inconsistencies, which is why they are used for color vision. But they are not as sensitive as rods, which can detect a single photon and are used for low-light vision. In 99% of all verbs, rods express only one type of light-sensitive lens, which means the vast majority of blisters are color-blind in low-light conditions.

Vision in most of the deep-sea fish goes the same way, but the new research showed some remarkable layout. By analyzing the gene expression expressing genes in rods and cones of fish living on the shallow surface water up to 6,500 feet of depth, the researchers found 13 fish with rods containing more than one opine gene. Of those, all deep-sea fish, four of them contain more than three rod disinfectants.

Most notable is the silver spinifin, which has a surprising 38 rod dissin genes. What is more, the researchers found in the cones of any other fish and the highest number of appearances found in any known vegetation. (Human vision compares four approaches in comparison). In addition, the rod retins found in silver spinifin fish are vulnerable to different wavelengths.

"This was very surprising," said Carlton. "The silver spinifine fish have very different visual capabilities than we thought. So, then, what is the good thing, what could the fish use in different spectra?"

Carleton believes the answer can be to detect the right prey. It has long been known that animals living in deep water have no need for color vision, because only blue light penetrates deeper than 600 feet. But in spite of the lack of sunlight, the deep sea is not damaged in color. Many animals that live in darkness generate their own light through bioluminescence.

The new study found that in fish with multiple rod inks, the specific light of their lightening is tuned to overlap with the spectrum of light emitted by the bioluminescent creatures that divide their habitat.

"It may be that their vision is highly tuned to the different colors of light emitted from the different species they prey on," Carlton said.

It is important to note that the four species of fish have been found to have more than three ocular retins unrelated. This suggests that rod-based color vision, which can be thought of as deep-water color vision, evolved independently multiple times and must satisfy some benefit to survival.

The researchers say their next steps are to enhance learning for other deep-sea fish and to look for shallow-water relatives of silver spinifin fish that could have evolved a large number of rod retins.

The article was replaced by materials provided by the Maryland University. Note: Material may be edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.

Reference: Musilova et al. 2019. Vision using multiple distinct rodins in deep-sea fish. Science. DOI: 10.1126 / science.aav4632.

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